Energy Conserving Housing for the Federal University of Technology Yola, Nigeria
Brown, G. Z.
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Brown, G. Z.
This study was part of a larger campus planning project for the new Federal University of Technology at Yola, Nigeria. Yola, a town of 100,000, is located in eastern Niqeria on the Benue River approximately 300 miles southwest of Lake Chad. Energy is of primary importance in new facilities design because of persistent electricity shortages and the high cost of diesel-generated electrical power. Mechanica1 cooling is typically the major consumer of energy, probably more than 80%, in university housing. Therefore strategies which reduce the energy used for cooling were the primary focus of this study. Daylighting and solar water heating were proposed as means of reducing the remaining 20% of the energy use. The proposed cooling method is stack assisted night ventilation of thermal mass. This cooling system can meet 100% of the average cooling load from June to February. During the three remaining months, the passive system must be augmented by mechanical refrigeration or evaporative cooling. The night ventilation of mass is a major departure from the cross ventilation system usually recommended for composite hot-humid, hot-arid climates such as Yola's. The cooling system has major implications for housing design and campus planning. Night ventilation of mass can utilize courtyards and compact site planning which is quite different than the dispersed schemes required by cross ventilation cooling schemes. Compact planning results in substantially lower costs due to the sharing of walls within the building clusters and reduced length of utilities, sewers, and roads.
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