Common versus Differentiated Goals in the Face of Between-Country Inequities: Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Helsinki and Oslo Protocols on the Reduction of Sulfur Emissions
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In this paper, I will explore whether, and how the Helsinki and the Oslo Protocols influenced emissions behavior, and whether the use of differentiated targets increased the effectiveness of the Oslo Protocol. The data I will present suggests that while the existence ofthe Oslo Protocol was probably more likely due to its use of differentiated goals, differentiated goals in general did not have an appreciable effect on emissions reductions behavior because of the way in which the goals were set, and because of other variables which had a much stronger effect on the outcome ofthe treaty. I will conclude that while the overall amount of sulfur emissions decreased during the period in which the treaties were in effect, the treaties caused a portion of these reductions in only a limited number of countries, and other, unrelated factors likely caused the bulk of emissions reductions.