Development and initial validation of the Multicultural Competence Change Scale for psychology trainees
Caban, Alisia Rose, 1979-
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Caban, Alisia Rose, 1979-
The development, maintenance, and integration of multicultural competence into all aspects of psychologists' work is critical to ethical practice in an increasingly diverse society. Measurement of multicultural competency is critical to investigating the development of multicultural competence and the effectiveness of multicultural competency training. However, existing measures of multicultural competence are limited in scope and are not congruent with the conceptualization of multicultural competence as a lifelong process. The purpose of this dissertation study was to address the limitations of existing instrumentation through development and initial validation of the Multicultural Competence Change Scale (MCCS). The MCCS assesses the development of multicultural competence from a "stages of change" perspective. The stages of change model provides a framework for assessing subtle cognitive, emotional, and behavioral modifications indicative of change. Participants included 221 counseling, clinical, and school psychology graduate students. An exploratory factor analysis and the generalized graded unfolding model were used to establish the MCCS factor structure. The MCCS was found to have a five factor structure, with each factor representing one of the stages of change. Internal consistency reliabilities for the MCCS subscales ranged from .64 - .74. Estimates of validity were obtained by examining relationships between the MCCS and other measures, such as the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey, Counselor Edition, Revised (MAKSS-CE-R). The MCCS Precontemplation, Contemplation, and Preparation subscales were significantly and negatively correlated with the MAKSS-CE-R, and the Action and Maintenance subscales were significantly and positively correlated with the MAKSS-CE-R. Examination of the sensitivity of the MCCS to respondent variability revealed that psychology trainees' who participated in a greater number of diversity-related trainings, who currently participate in diversity-related research, and who are members of underrepresented groups based on ethnicity, sexual orientation, and ability were more likely to be in either the action or maintenance stage of change. The MCCS provides a novel approach to multicultural competence assessment; however, it is still in the initial stages of development and additional items are needed to strengthen the factor structure and psychometric properties of the instrument.