The creation and frequency translation of single-photon states of light in optical fiber
McGuinness, Hayden James, 1980-
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McGuinness, Hayden James, 1980-
We explore the frequency translation of single-photon states of light and the creation of photon pairs by four-wave mixing in optical fiber. Frequency translation refers to changing the central frequency of a field, while photon pair creation refers to the creation of two individual photons at the same time. We demonstrate these effects in third-order nonlinear optical fiber. While both phenomena have previously been shown by three-wave mixing in second-order nonlinear media, there are compelling reasons to develop these tasks in third-order media. Most importantly, frequency translation in third-order material allows for the practical implementation of both small and large frequency shifts, while second-order material only practically allows for large shifts. Photon creation in third-order media often permits more flexible phase-matching conditions, allowing for the creation of a wider variety of quantum states than is often possible in second-order media. In our theoretical study of photon pair creation, we focus on the spectral correlations of the photon pairs. We pay particular attention to the creation of quantum states of high purity, where the photons are not spectrally correlated with one another. High purity photons are a requisite resource for several different quantum information processing applications, such as linear-optical quantum computing. We find that states with high purity can be realized with a minimal amount of spectral filtering. Experimentally, we study photon frequency translation in photonic crystal fiber. The central wavelength of the input photons was translated from 683 nm to 659 nm. We perform second-order intensity correlation measurements on both channels to demonstrate their quantum nature. This resulted in values of 0.21 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.05 for the 683-nm and 659-nm channels, respectively, demonstrating that those fields were dominated by their single-photon component. The efficiency at which the process occurred was 29 percent. Theoretically, we develop a Green function formalism to describe the translation process and develop a computational model to calculate the solution to the governing equations. Also, in a related experiment, we demonstrate classical frequency translation from 851 nm to 641 nm, a record translation in both wavelength and frequency, at an efficiency of 0.2 percent in a birefringent fiber.
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