Teaching Behaviors of Middle and High School Orchestra Directors in the Rehearsal Setting
Ihas, Dijana A.
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Ihas, Dijana A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and the time that middle and high school orchestra directors engaged in seven specific teaching behaviors in a rehearsal setting. Of particular interest was the amount of time orchestra directors engaged in conceptual teaching behaviors operationally defined as verbal behaviors of orchestra directors in which they attempt to make students aware of, have an understanding of, and/or be able to transfer any musical concept. Participants ( N = 12) were full-time middle and high school orchestra directors teaching in Washington, Oregon, or California. Each participant submitted a video recording of two regular orchestra rehearsals. Video recordings of participants were divided into 20-minute segments and randomly selected for observation of seven specific and operationally defined teaching behaviors: (a) nonmusical behavior, (b) nonverbal instruction (direction), (c) verbal instruction (direction), (d) noninteractive listening, (e) nonverbal feedback, (f) verbal feedback, and (g) conceptual teaching. These seven teaching behaviors were analyzed using the Simple Computer Recording Interface for Behavioral Evaluation (SCRIBE) of Duke and Stammen (2007). The data were reported in the form of the frequency with which each behavior occurred, the average time for each behavior expressed in minutes and seconds, and the percentage of time used on each behavior. Findings on conceptual teaching were reported. The results indicated that, on average, orchestra directors spent slightly more than 5% of the observed rehearsal time on conceptual teaching. Most of the instructional time was used on nonverbal instruction (28.15%) and verbal instruction (27.76%). Orchestra directors observed in this study used the least amount of time (2.42%) on nonverbal feedback. The most concerning finding of the study was the time orchestra directors used on nonmusical behaviors (14.70%), and the most interesting finding of the study was that middle school orchestra directors used twice as much time (7.40%) as high school orchestra directors (3.21%) on conceptual teaching. The findings of this study provided suggestions for future research and implications for music educators.