Parent Sociocultural Characteristics and Parent-Child Relationships Influencing Early Adolescent Ethnic Identity, Religiosity, and Distal Academic-Related Outcomes
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I developed and tested a model of relationships between primary caregiver ethnic identity and religiosity, primary caregiver experiences of discrimination stress, parent-child relationships, adolescent ethnic identity and religiosity, and their impact over time on adolescent academic orientation and positive future outlook. The sample consisted of youth and their families participating in an ongoing family centered intervention trial in a northwest metropolitan area. The theoretical frameworks that guided this study were Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, sociocultural theory, social identity theory, and critical race theory. The hypotheses regarding the relationships between key variables and supported by the aforementioned theoretical frameworks were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques and structural equation modeling. Study findings suggest that parental identity and cultural socialization influence adolescent religiosity and ethnic identity in early adolescence. Primary caregivers' sense of ethnic identity and religiosity directly impact cultural socialization of their children, which in turn influences adolescent identity development. The parent-child relationship plays a predominant role in positive youth outcomes (i.e., academic orientation and positive future outlook) above and beyond adolescent ethnic identity and religiosity considerations. Implications of the present study for both research and practice are discussed.