Exploring the Influence of Family Worldview and Cultural Socialization on Positive Outcomes in American Indian Youth
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The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of family worldview and cultural socialization on indicators of positive youth development in American Indian youth. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine whether cultural socialization moderated the relationship between family worldview and indicators of positive development in American Indian youth as measured by ethnic identity, pro-social activity, positive family relationships, hope, self-regulation, and future orientation. Individual and family differences were also examined. Participants included a community sample of 311 American Indian children and youth from 174 American Indian families from three tribes in the Pacific Northwest. Results demonstrated that the amount of variance between families for each of the positive youth outcomes was significant enough to warrant hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Family worldview was not significantly related to any of the positive youth outcomes and when entered into the HLM models did not significantly explain any variation in mean scores between families. The relationship between cultural socialization and ethnic identity was significant and positive and when entered into the HLM models significantly explained 10% of the variation in mean scores between families. There was a significant difference between the ethnic identity scores of males and females, with females having a higher mean than males. Positive family relationship scores were negatively correlated with age. Older youth tended to report less positive family relationships than their younger counterparts. Implications for research and practice are discussed.