Implications for Volcanic Hazards in the Central and Southern Cascades Based on Gas Emissions During Explosive Cinder Cone Activity
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Volatile emissions from Cascades cinder cone eruptions have been well-documented; however the implications for understanding the effects that volcanic gases have on surrounding communities have not been addressed. This study examines the hazards from volatile degassing during explosive activity by (1) analyzing S, Cl, and F concentrations dissolved in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glass from cinder cones located in central Oregon and northern California, (2) estimating the mass of volcanic gas degassed during these eruptions, and (3) predicting gas concentrations downwind of the vent. Analyses reveal that the magmas degassed >88% S, <49% Cl, and <50% F during eruption, equating to a release of ≤4.5 Mt SO2, ≤0.2 Mt HCl, and ≤0.2 Mt HF. Predictions of gas concentrations downwind of the vent provides reassurance that the levels of volcanic gases were not high enough at the time of eruption to present acute or severe health hazards to nearby residents.