Exploratory Responder Analysis of First Step to Success: Student Characteristics Contributing to Response
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This study examined the ability to identify subgroups of students with unique characteristics that are related to a meaningful and reliable response to the First Step to Success intervention. Identifying particular subgroups that are likely to respond or are not likely to respond to First Step to Success will help practitioners decide when the intervention should be used with an individual student based on his or her characteristics. Data on intervention recipients of a large-scale efficacy trial of First Step to Success was analyzed to identify student characteristics that best predict an initial response to First Step to Success, as well as the student characteristics that best predict maintenance over time. Data analysis consisted of a multistep process of examination, including: determining intervention response, validating the identified responder group, identification of predictors of initial responders, and identification of predictors of maintained responders. Results indicate that the only predictor of initial intervention response was the operant function of a student's problem behavior being attention (OR = 6.67, χ2 =10.83, df = 5, p < .05. Nagelkerke R2 = .22). No statistically significant predictor was identified for students who maintained response to the First Step to Success intervention. Clinical and pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed and suggested directions for future research are provided.