Low Impact Development Policy Adoption in MS4 Phase I Stormwater Management Programs West of the Continental Divide
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Low impact development is recognized as an effective means of controlling the impacts of urban stormwater. The majority of research on low impact development (LID) discusses its viability as a stormwater management technology or its challenges to its implementation, but little analysis has focused on its adoption as policy. This paper analyzes the LID policies for MS4 Phase I permittees west of the Continental divide. The analysis identifies significant differences for problem severity, climate, geographic, socioeconomic and political variables with respect to LID policy selection. Through multinomial logistic regression, this paper expands the analysis and explores the determinant effects the variables have on permittee LID policy choice. The results demonstrate that more stringent LID policy adoption arises in jurisdictions where climate influences higher levels of runoff levels. In addition, jurisdictions with higher education and higher income are more likely to have more stringent LID policies. These results suggest a higher willingness to pay for more increased regulation among jurisdictions with greater affluence.