Hybrid Metal-Ligand Hydrogen-Bonded (MLHB) Architectures Based on the Quinolone Subunit: Understanding and Expanding the Accessible Space of Supramolecular Systems
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Despite the prevalence of supramolecular architectures derived from metal-ligand or hydrogen-bonding interactions, few studies have focused on the simultaneous use of these two strategies to form discrete metal-ligand hydrogen-bonded (MLHB) assemblies. The design, synthesis, and characterization of 2-quinolone based hybrid subunits, 7-DPQ and 5-PYQ, that contain phosphine and pyridyl metal binding sites, respectively, is reported. Both subunits give two-fold symmetric hydrogen-bonded tectons that assemble with metal precursors to give hybrid MLHB structures. Treatment of [Cp*RhCl2]2 with the 7-DPQ subunit yields hybrid MLHB assemblies with closed topology. 1H diffusion ordered spectroscopy experiments established the stability of the structures in solution, and the measured hydrodynamic radii match those determined crystallographically, suggesting that the closed topology is maintained in solution and the solid state. In order to further explore possible MLHB architectures and test the selectivity boundaries of our quinolone-based subunits we report the selective assembly of 5-PYQ with mono- and bis-platinated anthracene precursors. Addition of 5-PYQ to [1-trans-Pt(PEt3)2NO3]-8-chloroanthracene yielded a hybrid MLHB structure with preorganization for a hybrid MLHB polymer. Despite the systems preorganization for the hybrid polymeric structure the assembly of 5-PYQ with 1,8-bis(trans-Pt(PEt3)2NO3)anthracene selects only for one discrete closed self-assembled macrocycle. The strong π-π stacking interactions of the 5-PYQ subunits erode the hydrogen-bonding fidelity to favor ambidentate coordination modes of 5-PYQ and give the non-hybrid macrocycle. In the course of investigating the intricacies of hybrid MLHB supramolecular structures we observed that, in addition to metal-ligand and hydrogen-bond interactions, the π-π stacking interactions of the 7-DPQ and 5-PYQ subunits played a critical role in determining the final assemblies. In fact, the prominent π-π interactions were typically found to be more favorable than the quinolone interligand hydrogen-bonding interactions. These results contribute to the overall knowledge of the design principles, synthesis, characterization, and fundamental assembly trends when exploiting both hydrogen-bonding and metal-ligand interactions to form stable supramolecular architectures. These studies have provided the foundation for expanding the accessible space of supramolecular chemistry to include rationally designed hybrid MLHB systems to give structures that more closely mimic the complex supramolecular systems observed in Nature. This dissertation includes both previously published/unpublished and co-authored material.