Development and Applications of Thin Film Resists for Electron Beam Lithography
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Throughout this work several thin film resists have been studied with substantial focus on HafSOx and SU-8. The study of HafSOx has granted more insight into how inorganic, spin coated films form and react under the electron beam. These films have been shown to form a thin dense crust at the surface that could have interesting implications in the interaction of the electrons. Continuing to further understand the electron interactions within the resist, low voltage patterns were created allowing the accelerating voltage to be matched to the film. With this general knowledge, higher resolution films can be constructed with shorter patterning times. Both resists complement each other in that HafSOx produces incredibly thin, dense structures to be formed with features below 10 nm in all dimensions. SU-8 allows micron thick features to be created over several millimeters. This flexibility in feature size enabled the creation of large fractals that could improve neuron binding to artificial retina down to the smallest fractals reported that are interesting for their applications as antennas. The final facet of this work involved looking at other methods of making structures. This was done through adding differing salts to organic molecules that stack into unique crystals. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.