Sexuality, Gender, and US Imperialism after Philippine Independence: An Examination of Gender and Sexual Stereotypes of Pilipina Entertainment Workers and US Servicemen
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This paper examines the continuation of US imperialism in the Philippines after Philippine Independence in 1946 through the gendered and sexual stereotypes of US men and Philippine women. These perceptions of the women as submissive and dependent were constructed through women’s interactions with US military men, who were seen as powerful and wealthy. The Philippine presidencies of Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino also transformed identities particularly of Philippine women. This paper illuminates instances of Pilipina agency that show many Pilipinas were not simply victims to US power, but also sought employment opportunities in order to provide for themselves, their families, and their country. This paper then connects the events around US military bases at that time to present-day stereotypes associated with Asian-born women married to US men in the United States, as well as the current discussions of reopening of the US military bases in the Philippines.