The Evolution of Command and Control Systems
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Complex technical systems go through a series of stages in their evolution from a concept of how to meet a possible challenge to an operational version responding to real-world crises. The present analysis offers a characterization of these stages and the factors that shape the transitions between them. It can be used to describe the status of a system, to characterize or antic~pate developmental difficulties, and to diagnose the sources of disagreements among those involved with it. It is illustrated here in the context of a specific system for which all stages must be addressed successfully, the National Command Authority for control of nuclear weapons in the U.S. or U.S.S.R.