A Multilevel Analysis of Student, Family, and School Factors Associated with Latino/a Parental Involvement in the Middle School Learning Environment
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Research suggests parental home and school involvement improves multiple outcomes for middle school students, including academic achievement, school engagement, motivation, self-efficacy, and prosocial behaviors. Little is known, however, about multilevel factors associated with Latino/a parental involvement in the middle school learning environment. In the current study, multilevel analysis was used to explore student, family, and school factors associated with Latino/a parental involvement. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analyses found (a) Latino/a parental home and school involvement varied within schools and between schools, (b) student gender, prosocial behavior, and academic achievement were positively associated with parental home involvement, and (c) student gender, problem behavior, prosocial behavior, academic achievement, and family socioeconomic status were positively associated with parental school involvement. Percentages of Latino/a students and low-income students in schools did not significantly moderate the average parental home or school involvement across students and across schools. The results of this study have implications for educators and policy makers to promote Latino/a parent-teacher collaboration in the middle school learning environment.