TUNABLE GEOMETRIC FANO RESONANCES IN A METAL/INSULATOR STACK
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We present a theoretical analysis of surface-plasmon-mediated mode-coupling in a planar thin film metal/insulator stack. The spatial overlap of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and a waveguide mode results in a Fano interference analog. Tuning of the material parameters effects the modes and output fields of the system. Lastly, the intensity and phase sensitivity of the system are compared to a standard surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We begin with background information on Fano interference, an interference effect between two indistinguishable pathways. Originally described for autoionization, we discuss the analogs in other systems. We discuss the features of Fano interference in the mode diagrams, and the Fano resonance observed in the output field. The idea of a geometric Fano resonance (GFR) occurring in the angular domain is presented. Background information on surface plasmon polaritons is covered next. The dielectric properties of metals and how they relate to surface plasmons is first reviewed. The theoretical background of SPPs on an infinite planar surface is covered. The modes of a two planar interface metal/insulator stack are reviewed and the leaky properties of the waveguide are shown in the reflectance. We solve for modes of a three interface metal/insulator stack and shows an avoided crossing in the modes indicative of Fano interference. We observe the asymmetric Fano resonance in the angular domain in the reflectance. The tunability of the material parameters tunes the GFR of the system. The GFR tuning is explored and different Fano lineshapes are observed. We also observe a reversal of the asymmetry Fano lineshape, attributed to the relate phase interactions of the non-interacting modes. The phase of the GFR is calculated and discussed for the variations of the parameters. The reflected field is explored as the insulator permittivities are varied. As the waveguide permittivity is varied, we show there is little response from the system. As the exterior permittivity is varied, the reflectance exhibits the geometric Fano resonance and the tunability of the lineshape is explored. Finally, we calculate the sensitivities of our metal/insulator stack to changes in the permittivity and compare them to the sensitivities of SPRs.