Viewing Greek and Roman Elements in Augustus’ Actium Monument at Nicopolis, Greece
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This thesis investigates the hybrid nature of Augustus’ Actium Monument at Nicopolis, Greece, completed c. 29-27 B.C.E. A commemoration of Augustus’ naval victory over the forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII, the monument was designed as a dual-terraced, open-air construction, with a visual program that employed both Greek and Roman elements. While the Actium Monument has gained recent attention in archaeological scholarship and scholars have noted its Greek and Roman hybrid nature, a thorough investigation of the implications of its hybridity has yet to be completed. Therefore, in this thesis I examine the Greek elements of the Actium Monument and their meaning, the Roman elements of the Actium Monument and their meaning, the way in which both Greek and Roman viewers in the region of Nicopolis would have viewed the monument, and what purpose the monument served in the provincial context of Greece.