Oral Reading Fluency and the Simple View of Reading for English Language Learners
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The Simple View of Reading is a well-known lens for understanding the skills that contribute to proficient reading. The Simple View explains reading comprehension as the product of decoding and listening comprehension. There is a gap in the literature regarding the applicability of the Simple View for Spanish-speaking English language learners, and also whether oral reading fluency would be valuable to include in the model as an intermediate variable. In the present study two groups of third grade students, one group comprised of students classified as English language learners and a comparison group of non-ELL students, were assessed on several reading skills. Data were collected on listening comprehension, decoding, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Data were analyzed using generalized least squares estimation for path analysis and partial invariance testing. Findings support the inclusion of oral reading fluency in the Simple View model, highlight the significance of listening comprehension, and suggest the Simple View model applies equally well across ELL and non-ELL groups. Limitations and future directions are addressed.