Effects of a Multifaceted Classroom Intervention on Racial Disproportionality
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The present study is an examination of a classroom-based intervention with five critical components of (a) defining and teaching desired behavior with cultural consideration, (b) increasing acknowledgement for African American students, (c) responding to unwanted behavior using an instructional approach, (d) using disaggregated data by race to guide intervention implementation, and (e) providing coaching to enhance intervention implementation. The study is a concurrent multiple-baseline single-case design across four general education teachers ranging from kindergarten to seventh grade. Results from the study indicate a functional relation between intervention implementation and increased rates of praise and decreased rates of reprimands for African American students. In addition, data show equitable increases in praise across both racial groups and decreases in reprimand disparities between racial groups during intervention. Teachers implementing the intervention found it to be acceptable, effective, and a good fit within their school and classroom contexts. The findings from this study suggest this intervention may help to close the discipline gap between African American students and their peers.