The importance of elemental stacking order and layer thickness in controlling the formation kinetics of copper indium diselenide
Thompson, John O., 1962-
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Thompson, John O., 1962-
This dissertation describes the deposition and characterization of an amorphous thin film with a composition near that of CuInSe 2 (CIS). The creation of an amorphous intermediate leads to a crystalline film at low annealing temperatures. Thin films were deposited from elemental sources in a custom built high vacuum chamber. Copper-selenium and indium-selenium binary layered samples were investigated to identify interfacial reactions that would form undesired binary intermediate compounds resulting in the need for high temperature annealing. Although the indium-selenium system did not form interfacial compounds on deposit, indium crystallized when the indium layer thickness exceeded 15 angstroms, disrupting the continuity of the elemental layers. Copper-selenium elemental layers with a repeat thickness of over 30 angstroms or compositions with less than 63% selenium formed CuSe on deposit. Several deposition schemes were investigated to identify the proper deposition pattern and thicknesses to form the CIS amorphous film. Simple co-deposition resulted in the nucleation of CIS. A simple stacking of the three elements in the older Se-In-Cu at a repeat thickness of 60 angstroms resulted in the nucleation of CuSe and sometimes CIS. The CIS most likely formed due to the disruption of the elemental layers by the growth of the CuSe. Reduction of the repeat thickness to 20 angstroms eliminated the nucleation of CuSe, as predicted by the study of the binary Cu-Se layered samples, but resulted in the nucleation of CIS, similar to the co-deposited samples. To eliminate both the thick Cu-Se region, and prevent the intermixing of all three elements, a more complex deposition pattern was initiated. The copper and selenium repeat thicknesses were reduced into a Se-Cu-Se-Cu-Se pattern followed by deposition of the indium layer at a total repeat thickness of 60 angstroms. At a Se:Cu ratio of 2:1 and the small repeat thickness, no Cu-Se phases nucleated. Additionally, the Cu-In interface was eliminated. For this deposition scheme, films with a selenium rich composition relative to CuInSez were generally amorphous. Those that were Cu-In rich always nucleated CIS on deposit. Annealing of all samples produced crystalline CIS.