Delineating 'Public' and 'Participation' in PPGIS
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PPGIS is often presented as a people-centered alternative to the use of GIS compared to a more technocratic,expert-driven methodology. Yet, the umbrella of PPGIS is quite broad. Within such a broad context, it may be helpful for ractitioners of PPGIS and those who may be interested in PPGIS concepts to have a better understanding of exactly what PPGIS is. Or, in other words, having a clearer conception of what ‘public’and ‘participation’ is, and how they relate to expected outcomes and outputs within a GIS context is very important as the ideas and ideals of PPGIS continue to gain momentum. Understanding the variations in the types of ‘public’, cross-referencing them against the distinctions in ‘participation’, and linking the intersection of types of ‘public’ and ‘participation’ to expected GIS outcomes and outputs would greatly enrich the field. Moreover, such delineation would allow PPGIS practitioners and those considering PPGIS approaches to appreciate the linkages of certain types of participation processes, certain elements of the public, and certain types of expected project results. This paper offers a review of key literature relevant to public participation and presents potential integrated matrices to guide future PPGIS thought.