Transforming Regulatory Processes: Karuk Participation in the Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Process
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This thesis examines the extent to which the Karuk Tribe has participated in natural resource management regulatory processes, using the Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process as a particular case study for evaluation. One of the most effective ways that the Tribe participates in the TMDL process is through the rigorous adoption of the technical tools of regulatory science. Collaboration with nontribal organizations is also used to build capacity for participation. The Tribe’s active participation in the TMDL process has in turn shaped the process, making it more inclusive of tribal values and traditional knowledge, improving overall scientific inquiry, and facilitating increased cooperation among tribal and non-tribal resource managers. At the same time, the Tribe’s participation in the process remains “uneven,” underscoring the ongoing challenge of making regulatory processes that recognize the legitimacy of tribal knowledge and values.