Abstract:
The present dissertation consists of four interconnected projects. In the first, we introduce and study what we call factorizable module algebras. These are $U_q(\mathfrak{g})$-module algebras $A$ which factor, potentially after localization, as the tensor product of the subalgebra $A^+$ of highest weight vectors of $A$ and a copy of the quantum coordinate algebra $\mathcal{A}_q[U]$, where $U$ is a maximal unipotent subgroup of $G$, a semisimple Lie group whose Lie algebra is $\mathfrak{g}$.
The class of factorizable module algebras is surprisingly rich, in particular including the quantum coordinate algebras $\mathcal{A}_q[Mat_{m,n}]$, $\mathcal{A}_q[G]$ and $\mathcal{A}_q[G/U]$. It is closed under the braided tensor product and, moreover, the subalgebra $A^+$ of each such $A$ is naturally a module algebra over the quantization of $\mathfrak{g}^*$, the Lie algebra of the Poisson dual group $G^*$.
The aforementioned examples of factorizable module algebras all possess dual canonical bases which behave nicely with respect to factorization $A=A^+\otimes \mathcal{A}_q[U]$. We expect the same is true for many other members of this class, including braided tensor products of such. To facilitate such a construction in tensor products, we propose an axiomatic framework of based modules which, in particular, vastly generalizes Lusztig's notion of based modules. We argue that all of the aforementioned $U_q(\mathfrak{g})$-module algebras (and many others) with their dual canonical bases are included, along with their tensor products.
One of the central objects of study emerging from our generalization of Lusztig's based modules is a new (very canonical) basis $\mathcal{B}^{\diamond n}$ in the $n$-th braided tensor power $\mathcal{A}_q[G/U]$. We argue (yet conjecturally) that $\mathcal{A}_q[G/U]^{\underline{\otimes}n}$ has a quantum cluster structure and conjecture that the expected cluster structure structure on $\mathcal{A}_q[G/U]^{\underline{\otimes}n}$ is completely controlled by the real elements of our canonical basis $\mathcal{B}^{\diamond n}$.
Finally, in order to partially explain the monoidal structures appearing above, we provide an axiomatic framework to construct examples of bialgebroids of Sweedler type. In particular, we describe a bialgebroid structure on $\mathfrak{u}_q(\mathfrak{g})\rtimes\mathbb{Q} C_2$, where $\mathfrak{u}_q(\mathfrak{g})$ is the small quantum group and $C_2$ is the cyclic group of order two.
This dissertation contains previously published co-authored material.