Fortifications of Syracuse: Dionysius I 405 to 396 BCE
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It is clear that the fortifications of Syracuse were completed in several stages, the 3 most prominent phases occurring under Dionysius I, Agathokles and Archimedes, that is between 405 and 212 BCE. There are a few theories that provide a chronological sequence for the construction of these fortifications. This paper concentrates on the phase conducted under Dionysius from 405 to 396. The only fortifications that all scholars are able to agree were built between 405 and 396 are the fortifications at Ortygia and the northern part of the Epipolae circuit wall from the Euryalus fort to the sea (figure 1). For the rest of the fortifications along the Epipolae plateau, there is a general consensus as to when they were built, but not all scholars are in agreement. I hope to show that Dionysius also oversaw the first phase in the construction of the southern section of the Epipolae circuit wall, the Euryalus fort, the Epipolae gate and towers 2 through 5 between 405 and 396 (figure I). The first section of this paper will introduce the more prominent sources in relation to the Syracusan fortifications. Then the following sections will show, in sequence, how geographically, historically and archaeologically the evidence points to a date for the construction of the southern section of the Epipolae circuit wall, towers 2 through 5, the Euryalus fort and the Epipolae gate between 405 and 396.