Approaches to Coastal Management
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The coastal zone includes coastal lands and also nearshore marine waters (Kay and Alder 1999). The interaction between terrestrial and marine environments is what makes the coastal zone unique. Thus, coastal management addresses various interrelated terrestrial, coastal, and marine issues. Effective coastal management requires practitioners to overcome challenges such as dealing with overlapping jurisdictional boundaries and agency responsibility, and attempting to balance a diverse range of marine and terrestrial activities (Peel and Lloyd 2004). Coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) is a relatively new and evolving ocean policy concept (The Nature Conservancy 2009). Coastal management has typically occurred on a sectoral basis, characterized by ad-hoc planning, inadequate coordination, and reactive in nature (Jay 2010). Advocates assert that CMSP can address these issues by acting as a mechanism to facilitate integrated, ecosystem-based forms of management (Douvere 2010). Supporters also emphasize the importance of CMSP in resolving conflicts among ocean users and coordinating multi-sectoral agencies in the decision making process Douvere 2010). In theory, CMSP should assist in solving many of the traditional marine management issues. However, there still remains a lot of ambiguity around the details of coastal and marine spatial planning. As Fanny Douvere points out in her recently published PhD thesis “Coastal and marine spatial planning: concepts, current practice and linkages to other management approaches”, that there is a lack of research that illustrates what CMSP is really about, how it is being applied in practice and how it is linked to other management approaches (Douvere 2010). She also indicates that there has been a lack of academic research to identify the “critical” elements that will ensure that the marine spatial plan can achieve anticipated results. This research will probe deeper into the gaps identified by Douvere. Through a case study analysis of Oregon‟s Coastal Management Program and the Territorial Sea Plan, the research will examine whether CMSP (as a process) and the associated spatial plan (as a guiding document) are being used to address traditional issues and achieve coastal management goals. The research will focus on Oregon‟s approach to territorial sea planning and management, and the role of coastal and marine spatial planning within this context. Oregon is one of three states in the U.S. to undertake a comprehensive coastal and marine spatial planning effort. Oregon recently amended its Territorial Sea Plan to include policies, standards, and development requirements for renewable energy projects within state waters. Currently, the Department of Land Conservation and Development is working with stakeholders to add a spatial component to the Territorial Sea Plan. The product of this effort will be a territorial sea planning document that will guide future development of wave energy projects and help to balance the state‟s conservation and economic goals. Oregon‟s coastal management program was established over thirty-seven years ago. The maturity of this program will allow for a critical review of integrated coastal management and assess how coastal and marine spatial planning is being integrated into the established system.